Bioremediation of Industrial Wastes of Oil Refineries as an Environmental Solution for Water Pollution

Tamer Raafat1, Nour Sh. El-Gendy2, Laila Farahat2, Mohamed Kamel3 and Ezzat A. El-Shafy4

1Engineering for Petroleum and Process Industries

2Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute

3Water Microbiology, National Research Center

4Environmental and Sanitary Division, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University

Abstract

Four waste water samples were taken from Cairo Oil Refinery Company (CORC) at Mostorod, representing two groups according to their total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) contents; the relatively highly polluted samples were taken from El-Taktir American Petroleum Institute (API) separator and the low polluted ones were taken from El-Islah API separator. Mechanical treatments show percentages removal in Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) of 50% and 35% in the outlet effluent of El-Taktir and El-Islah API separators, respectively with TPH concentrations of 250 mg/l and 65 mg/l, respectively. Biotreatment of sterilized mechanically treated water samples with Staphylococcus xylosus for 7 days of incubation at 30C, pH 7 and 200 rpm show the high biodegradation efficiency of the isolated bacteria and its preference to work on the high concentration than the low one with percentage removal of 90% and 72.31%, respectively. This led to final TPH concentrations in El-Taktir and El-Islah water samples of 25 mg/l and 18 mg/l, respectively with approximately complete removal of normal and iso alkanes independent of the TPH concentration. AB1 is also able to degrade Pristane (Pr) and Phytane (Ph) in the highly polluted sample with 73.41% and 54.96%, respectively while it shows complete removal of Pr and Ph in the low polluted sample. Biotreatment shows also high biodegrading efficiency in the unresolved complex mixture (UCM); aromatics, naphthenes and alicyclic hydrocarbons with percentages removal of 88.59% and 68.93% for El-Taktir and El-Islah water samples, respectively.