Characterization of Mn-Doped Vanadium Phosphorus Oxide (VPO) Catalyst: Effect of Ball Milling

Y.H. Taufiq-Yap and C.K. Goh

Department of Chemistry, The University of Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.


The effect of ball milling on the structure and surface reactivity of the Mn-doped vanadium phosphorus oxide (VPO) catalyst is discussed. Mn-doped VOHPO4H2O precursor was prepared via organic method. The precursor was ball milled in isopropyl alcohol using agate balls for 60 min at 800 rpm. XRD, BET surface area measurements, SEM, O2-TPD, H2-TPR and TPD of NH3 were used to characterize properties of the final catalysts. The results revealed that mechanical treatment of Mn-doped VPO catalyst increased surface area as well as reduced particle size of the material. Furthermore, process also increased exposure of (001) crystallographic plane of VOHPO4H2O precursor. The secondary structure of the milled material is also lost. The total amount of oxygen desorbed (from O2-TPD) and removed (by H2-TPR) from milled material is higher compared to the unmilled one. The surface acidity of the catalyst was also increased after milling process, as evidenced by lower desorption temperature and higher total amount of the ammonia desorbed.