Boranes in Organic Chemistry

1. a-Carbonylalkyl- and b-Oxyalkylboranes in Organic Synthesis

V.M. Dembitsky1, G.A. Tolstikov2, M. Srebnik1

1Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Natural Products, School of Pharmacy

The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel

2Novosibirsk Institute of Organic Chemistry SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia

Abstract

This review is devoted to the synthesis of a-carbonylalkyl- and b-hydroxy-alkyl boranes and their use in organic synthesis. a-Carbonyl-alkylboranes include several heteroatomic compounds, in particular, [1.2.3]-diazaborinines, uracyl boronic acids, and [1.2.3.4]diaza-diboretes. The latter type has been obtained by the ketene aminoborations. The reactions of halogenboranes with diazoesters and sulfur ylides resulting in formation of a-carbonyl alkylborates containing diazofunction or ylide structural fragment are described. Amino and halogen boration of acetylenic acid esters was also used for the synthesis of a-carbonyl alkyl boranes. Reactions involving Cr-carbene complexes and acetylenic borone esters were presented for the synthesis of naphthoquinone boronic acids. The formation of amidoboranes by boration of dichloroacetanilides was remined. Boration of 4,8-dimethoxy-2-quinolone with trimethylborates leading to 2-quinolone-3-boronic acid was described. The common synthetic method to a-carbonyl alkyl boranes based on the hydroboration of acrylic acid derivatives was discussed. The results of enhydrazones hydroboration, leading to stable cyclic complexes have been mentioned. The interaction of a-bromoketones with trialkyl or dialkylboranes represents as a general synthetic method to a-carbonyl alkyl boranes. Synthetic approaches to b-hydroxy alkyl boranes are performed. The wide spread hydroboration of vinyl and allyl esters received a well-described attention. The hydroboration of cyclanone enol acetates, 3-keto- and 17-keto-steroids and cyclic allyl alcohol acetates was discussed. The results of aliphatic and alicyclic vinyl esters (including dihydrofuran derivatives) boralylation leading to b-hydroxy alkyl boranes have been envisaged. The synthesis of optically active b-hydroxy alkyl boranes using chiral borane hydrides was discussed. The heterocyclic boran dihydrides are obtained by the hydroboration of dihydropyranes, chromenes and flavenes. Borosilylation of allyl allenylic esters was also been envisaged. The synthetic scheme to optically active boranes and further optically active alcohols were presented. The problems of selectivity regularities in hydroboration reaction by intermolecular complex formations have been discussed.