Air Quality of the Black Sea Region: Local and Long Range
Omar Elagha1, Gudral Tuncel2 and Suat Tusun3
1Fatih University, Department of Environmental Engineering, B. Cekmece, 34900, Istanbul, Turkey.
2Middle East Technical University, Department of Environmental Engineering, 06531, Ankara, Turkey.
3Ministry of Forestry, Bolu, Turkey
Catalysis has manifested its role as a fundamental tool in pollution prevention. While catalysis has long been utilized in increasing efficiency, yield, and selectivity, it is now also recognized as accomplishing a wide range of green chemistry goals. Air pollutants produced by industrial and man-made emissions possesses a unique property that it could affect regional and global receptors. Measuring and defining the levels of pollutants and its sources whether it is local, regional or global should precede the precautions and measures that should be taken to reduce the levels of a particular pollutant. In this article the air quality at the Black Sea region of Turkey is being discussed. Moreover, it endeavors to locate the possible sources of the different pollutants at local, regional and long range transported scales. About 196 rainwater samples were collected over the Black Sea region of Amasra between 1995-1999 and analyzed for major and trace ions.
Although statistical tools do provide information on the type of sources and processes affecting the site, they do not provide information on where these sources are located. A back trajectory has to be included in the evaluation to incorporate geographical information in analytical results. To compute the PSCF for each ion the back trajectories were computed using ECMWF model, which is an isentropic 3-D model. Then number of 1 hour-long segment of the 3.5 daylong trajectories in each defined sub-region is determined. This study shows that, the Black Sea region receives different amounts and types of anthropogenic pollutants via long-range transport according to trajectory models. The highest PSCF values for H+ are calculated for central Europe and Russia have fairly high contribution to observed free acidity in our samples. The main source areas for SO42- were found to be central Europe and Northwestern Turkey (Marmara region or Istanbul–Kocaeli industrial area).