Oxidative Catalytic Cracking of Heavy Oil Residues

R.K. Ibrasheva, Z.T. Mataeva, K.A. Zhubanov

Research Institute of New Chemical Technologies and Materials

480012, 95-a Karasai Batyr Street, Almaty, Kazakhstan

Abstract

The features of oxidative cracking of vacuum distillate of Aturau and Zhetybai oil have been investigated. It was found that the yield of gasoline and light gas oil depends on the ratio of natural zeolite and clay in the composite catalysts, flow rate of air and 0.2 % catalyst suspension in the raw material and temperature of the cracking. It was shown that maximum yield of gasoline, kerosene and gas oil was achieved with the composite catalyst containing 14 % of activated zeolite. Suspension of this catalyst significantly promotes gas formation during oxidative cracking as compared to that for cracking in the inert atmosphere. This proves that catalytic destruction of high molecular hydrocarbons in the presence of trace amount of air is increased. The yield of light gas oil is increased whereas yield of gasoline and gas is decreased when flow rate of 0.2 % catalyst suspension in raw material is 1.0 hour-1 as compared to that for 0.1 hour-1 flow rate in oxidative cracking conditions. It was found (GLC method) that formation of diene and cyclodiene hydrocarbons during oxidative cracking at 0.1 hour-1 flow rate proceeds better than that for cracking in inert atmosphere. Oxidative cyclization into arenes proceeds when flow rate is 1.0 hour-1 whereas oxidative olefin dehydrogenation proceeds when flow rate is 0.1 hour-1. Alpha olefins were found in gasoline, kerosene and gas oil fractions (IR-spectroscopy).